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Photosynthesis Of Plants
Aug 17, 2018

Plants have the ability to photosynthesis--that is, they can use water, inorganic salts and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, release oxygen, and produce glucose--a substance that is rich in energy for use by plants.

The chlorophyll of the plant contains magnesium.

Plant cells have distinct cell walls and nuclei, and their cell walls are composed of glucose polymers-cellulose. All of the plants ' ancestors were unicellular, and they swallowed photosynthetic bacteria, which formed a mutually beneficial relationship: photosynthetic bacteria live in plant cells (the so-called endogenous symbiosis). Finally, the bacterium is transformed into a chloroplast, which is a organelles that exist in all plants but cannot survive on their own. Most plants belong to the Angiosperm gate, are flowering plants, which also includes a variety of trees. The respiration of plants is mainly in the mitochondria of cells, and photosynthesis is carried out in the chloroplast of cells. [7] The photosynthesis of green plants is the most common on earth, the largest reaction process plays an important role in the synthesis of organic compounds, the accumulation of solar energy and the purification of air, the maintenance of oxygen content in the atmosphere and the stability of the carbon cycle, which is the basis of agricultural production, and is of great significance in theory and practice.

According to calculations, the world's green plants can produce about 400 million tons of protein, carbohydrates and fats per day, while also releasing nearly 500 million tons of oxygen into the air, providing adequate food and oxygen for humans and animals. Leaf is the main organ of photosynthesis, and chloroplast is an important organelle of photosynthesis. The chloroplast pigments in higher plants include chlorophyll (A and B) and carotenoids (carotene and lutein), which are distributed on the photosynthetic membranes. The absorption and fluorescence of chlorophyll show that it can absorb light energy and be stimulated by sunlight.

The biosynthesis of chlorophyll is formed under the condition of illumination, which is influenced by the light, temperature, mineral nutrition, water and oxygen. Photosynthesis consists of two interrelated steps of light reaction process and photosynthetic carbon assimilation, including two stages of primary reaction and electron transfer and photosynthetic phosphorylation, in which the former absorbs, transmits and converts light energy into electric energy, The latter converts electrical energy into ATP and NADPH2 (collectively known as assimilation), two active chemical energies. The transformation of active chemical energy into stable chemical energy is accomplished through the process of carbon assimilation. Carbon assimilation has C3, C4 and Cam three ways, according to the different carbon assimilation pathway, the plant is divided into C3 plants, C4 plants and cam plants. However, the C3 pathway is the main form of carbon assimilation in all plants, and its immobilized CO2 enzymes are rubp-carboxymethyl enzymes. C4 approach and cam approach are only different CO2 fixed way, and finally in the plant body again to release CO2, participate in C3 pathway synthesis of starch. C4 pathway and cam pathway fixed CO2 enzymes are pep, its affinity for CO2 is greater than RUBP-carboxymethyl enzyme, C4 Way plays a role of CO2 pump; cam pathway is characterized by nocturnal stomatal opening, absorption and fixation CO2 formation of malic acid, diurnal stomatal closure, Using the CO2 released by the nightly malic acid decarboxylase, sugar was formed by C3 pathway.

This is the adaptation that is formed during the long evolutionary process. Light respiration is the process by which green cells absorb O2 to release CO2, and the substrate is ethanol acid formed by RUBP of C3 pathway. The whole method of ethanol acid was sequentially carried out in chloroplast, peroxide and mitochondria.

C3 plants have obvious light respiration, and C4 plant light respiration is not obvious. Plant photosynthetic rate varies with plant species, growth period and photosynthetic product accumulation, and is also affected by environmental conditions such as illumination, CO2, temperature, moisture, mineral elements, and O2. The effects of these environmental factors on photosynthesis are not isolated, but are interrelated and combined.

Within a certain range, the more suitable the conditions, the faster the photosynthetic rate. Plant energy efficiency is still very low. Crop yields are significantly different from theoretical values, so there is a great potential for stimulation. To improve the utilization rate of light energy, we should reduce the energy loss caused by leaky and improve the conversion rate of solar energy, mainly by increasing the photosynthetic area, prolonging the photosynthetic time, increasing the photosynthetic efficiency, increasing the economic yield coefficient and reducing the consumption of photosynthetic products.

Improving the photosynthetic performance is the fundamental way to improve crop yield.


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